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Dunkirk evacuation | Facts, Map, Photos, Numbers, Timeline, & Summary | Britannica Nov 15, �� Kaiser Wilhelm orders the Imperial German Navy's fleet of U-boats to resume their campaign of unrestricted submarine warfare, effectively causing the United States to enter World War I. No vessel - civilian or naval - is safe, and war's end, German U-boats .

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Supplies like concrete and sandbags are unavailable, and sailors instead load the sub with 38 tons of gold bullion and silver coins that had been emptied from Filipino banks.

Trout fights her way out of the Philippines, sinking a Japanese freighter and patrol boat before they sail for Pearl Harbor. Holland M. Only of the 8, Japanese defenders are captured. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin -- meet at the Crimea Conference best known as the Yalta Conference to discuss among other points what was to become of soon-to-be conquered Germany and the nations the Nazis had previously defeated.

Hitler will volunteer for the German army when war breaks out in August, serving in a reserve infantry regiment as a runner. Army Lt. Thompson, a member of the American 1st Aero Squadron, is invited by French aviators to fly in a French "Breguet" biplane bomber as a gunner on one of their missions. Thompson shoots down a German Albatross fighter over Saarbrucken, Germany, making him the first American in uniform to shoot down an enemy airplane.

Today, the U. Roosevelt awards Maj. Alexander A. Vandegrift the Medal of Honor for his role as commanding general of the 1st Marine Division during the Guadalcanal campaign.

Howard Richardson during a simulated combat exercise. The Sabre pilot ejects and the B's wings are severely damaged, forcing an emergency landing. Before the bomber can land safely, the crew jettisons the 7,lb. Mark 15 hydrogen bomb off the coast of Savannah, Ga.

The Pentagon tells the public that the weapon's nuclear capsule was removed prior to the mission and therefore presents no threat. France recognizes the United States as an independent nation and provides much-needed military aid. Foote and a force commanded by Brig. Ulysses S. Grant converge upon Fort Henry. The plan is for Foote's warships and Grant's troops to attack simultaneously, but heavy rains and water from the swollen Tennessee River force the Confederates to surrender the flooding fort to Foote before Grant can arrive.

Believing that the massive Naval and aerial bombardments have wiped out most of the island's defenders, Adm. Chester Nimitz says "Well, this will be easy. The Japanese will surrender Iwo Jima without a fight. Hackney volunteers to be lowered from a HH-3E "Jolly Green Giant" rescue helicopter into the jungle - despite the presence of enemy forces - to locate a downed pilot.

The Pararescueman comes up empty on the first attempt, but finds the pilot on a second sortie. During the flight home, the helicopter is hit by ant-aircraft fire. Hackney gives the pilot his own parachute, then looks for another for himself. Before Hackney can strap on the chute, the "Jolly Green" is hit again, forcing the crew to jump. For his actions, Hackney becomes the first living recipient of the Air Force Cross. He will go on to become the highest awarded enlisted man in Air Force history, earning 28 decorations for combat valor.

The Japanese ship turns to ram the sub and rakes Growler 's bridge with machine gun fire, wounding the skipper, Commander Howard W. Unable to get off the bridge, Gilmore orders the crew to "Take her down," sacrificing his life to save his men. For his actions, Gilmore is awarded the Medal of Honor - the first of seven sub commanders to earn the nation's top award for valor during World War II. Meanwhile, the Imperial Japanese Navy completes Operation "Xe" - the evacuation of nearly 1, remaining troops from Guadalcanal.

After six months of brutal fighting, nearly 15, Americans killed or wounded, and over aircraft and dozens of ships lost, the island is now completely in American hands.

The attack prompts Pres. Lyndon Johnson to strike back by ordering the bombing of military targets along the de-militarized zone and in North Vietnam. However, the Soviet premier Alexei Kosygin is in Hanoi during the attacks, and the Soviet Union uses the timing of Johnson's retaliation as an opportunity to increase military aid to North Vietnam.

Stewart Brig. Stewart, a helicopter pilot with over 1, hours combat experience before joining NASA, becomes the first soldier to receive the Astronaut Badge. Boyce incorporates the Boy Scouts of America. Countless boys will cut their teeth as young adventurers in Boyce's scouting program before joining the military.

When sub commander Eugene Fluckey - one of nine Medal of Honor recipients to earn the Boy Scouts' top distinction of Eagle Scout - assembled a landing party to go ashore and destroy a Japanese train, he wanted former Boy Scouts to do the job, since they would be able to find their way back.

Carter's decision comes just four years after Pres. The in. After pursuing the French vessel through a storm, Capt. Thomas Truxtun - one of the first six Naval officers appointed by President George Washington - manages to force his counterpart into a clash that lasts over an hour, with Constellation inflicting heavy casualties and capturing the ship in the United States' first naval engagement since the end of the Revolutionary War.

George Marshall Chief of Staff of the U. Army , Gen. Their mission is to advise the White House on military matters. Connie the fourth so-named vessel to serve the U. Navy is one of three U. The ft. Macon and her sister ship Akron which crashed in are the largest aircraft ever produced by the United States - just 20 feet shorter than the ill-fated Hindenburg , which will famously be lost in Incidentally, Macon 's commanding officer, Lt. Herbert Wiley, was Akron 's executive officer and one of only three men to survive that crash.

Bernard J. Irwin, an assistant surgeon, volunteers to lead 14 soldiers on a daring mile rescue mission. With no horses available, the men of the 1st Dragoons today's 1st Cavalry Regiment must start their journey on mules, and Irwin's force fight their way to the beleaguered soldiers and help break the siege. While the Medal of Honor is not created until , and Irwin isn't decorated until just before his retirement as brigadier general in , his actions make him the first man to earn the Medal of Honor.

Francis T. Evans USMC becomes the first aviator to perform a loop in a seaplane. His Curtiss N-9 stalls after the maneuver and Evans barely manages to save the plane before splashing into the Gulf of Mexico. The techniques he discovers while recovering from the stall are still used by pilots to this day. In , Evans is awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for his feat, which the plane's manufacturers said was not possible.

The first strikes will begin in just over two weeks and when the campaign finally ends in , American warplanes will have dropped nearly , tons of munitions - at the cost of over U. Johnson orders the deployment of 10, 82d Airborne Division soldiers and a regimental landing team from the 5th Marine Division to Vietnam and discusses the possibility of calling up tens of thousands more Reservists and former service members in the event of a second Communist offensive.

Some 15, troops will participate in the Battle of Marjah, and the city is not declared secure until December. John Paul Jones fires a gun salute to French Adm. The French return the salute with nine guns. The crew of " Old Ironsides " will capture two more vessels over the next five days. The sub is skippered by an almost year-old Lt.

Chester W. Nimitz, destined to become the famous five-star fleet admiral of World War II. Knowing that he may only have seconds to extinguish the fire before it kills the ship, Water Tender Second Class Elmer C. Bigelow dives into the blazing compartment without the putting on breathing apparatus.

He saves the ship, but at the cost of his life. For his actions, Bigelow is posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. They fire a 2,lb.

Grant and Flag Officer Andrew H. The Confederate defenders manage to drive off Foote's gunboats, but are surrounded by Grant's soldiers. On this date, Brig. Floyd attempts a breakout, hoping to open an escape route to Nashville. Grant's men drive the Confederates back to the fort, and the next day accepts the surrender of some 12, soldiers.

After his victories at Forts Henry and Donelson, Grant has given the North control of both the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers in the first major victories for the Union. He earns the nickname "Unconditional Surrender" Grant and a promotion to major general. Within minutes, U. Convinced that the explosion the cause of which is still being debated is the result of a mine or the work of Spanish saboteurs, American newspapers will demand vengeance.

America will soon be at war with Spain. Nathan G. Gordon and his eight-man PBY "Catalina" seaplane crew are dispatched to rescue the downed airmen. Despite very rough seas and being targeted by heavy, close-range enemy fire, Gordon and his crew make multiple landings and pick up 15 officers and men.

Believing the Germans had been using the historic landmark as an observation post, General Sir Harold Alexander, the Commander-in-Chief of Allied Armies in Italy, had ordered its destruction.

Although the Germans avoided using the site before the bombing, they did move into the ruins following its destruction. After several bloody assaults on Monte Cassino, the Allies finally prevail in May, but at the cost of well over 50, casualties. Navy Lt. There, Decatur and a volunteer force of sailors and Marines board the frigate USS Philadelphia the second of six so-named American warships , which had been previously captured by Tripolitan pirates.

After a brief but violent close-quarters struggle � in which several pirates but no Americans are killed � Decatur orders the Philadelphia burned. For the next 11 days, the Americans will root out the enemy from a labyrinth of caves and tunnels and beat back multiple banzai attacks before wiping out almost all of the 6,man enemy garrison.

During a massive plane raid on a troop encampment, Williams was hit by enemy ground fire which knocked out his instrument panel, landing gear, and hydraulic system; damaged his control surfaces; and set the plane on fire. Rather than eject, Williams brings the plane down on its belly and skids down the runway for over a mile before the mortally wounded plane comes to a stop.

Williams, often flying as the wingman for future Mercury astronaut John Glenn, walks away with just a sprained ankle and goes on to fly 38 more missions over Korea before returning to baseball for good he also flew in the Pacific Theater during World War II.

It is a pyrrhic victory however: the submarine also sinking � either with its victim or soon after the attack � with the loss of all hands. William Tecumseh Sherman. Marines land and quickly capture Engebi island, the first obstacle to seizing Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshalls. The following day, U. Army forces strike Eniwetok � a tougher fight � and soldiers and Marines seize the island in three days. Marine divisions begin hitting the beach on Day One of the epic battle for Iwo Jima.

Of the 21, Japanese diehards defending Iwo, all but around are killed. Almost 7, Marines will lose their lives. Another 26, will be wounded. During the fierce two-month battle, 22 Marines will earn the nation's highest award for valor, along with five Navy Corpsmen and one Naval landing craft officer. O'Hare becomes the Navy's first ace of the war and is awarded the Medal of Honor. Allied losses during the "Big Week" will be high. German losses will be staggering. Marine Lt. John H. Glenn Jr. Glenn has just become the first American to orbit the Earth - doing so three times during his historic spaceflight.

As a military test pilot, Glenn flew the first-ever supersonic transcontinental flight, and at the age of 77, returned to space in aboard Space Shuttle Discovery , becoming the oldest person to fly in space.

Although designed to intercept ballistic missiles, the SM-3 hits the satellite, which was traveling at 17, miles per hour, some miles above the Pacific Ocean. Once crews have nearly contained the blaze, another kamikaze slams into the ship and disables the firefighting system. Bismarck Sea is destroyed, killing officers and men, and is the last American carrier sunk in the war.

On the killing fields of Iwo Jima, described to by one correspondent as a "nightmare in hell," Lt. Justice M. Chambers, Capt. Dunlap, Sgt. Ross F. Gray, Capt. Ruhl will each earn the Medal of Honor on this date. During the campaign, Harrier pilots would fly 3, flights by Nassau aviators with the loss of five jets and two Marine pilots.

Norman Schwarzkopf will name the Harrier as one of the seven most valuable weapons systems of the war. During the engagement, an artillery battery led by Capt. Braxton Bragg - who goes on to become a Confederate general - plugs a gap in the American lines, and is instrumental in the victory.

Although historians call it a misquote, Taylor's order of "Give them a little more grape, Capt. Bragg," meaning load the cannons with double the "grapeshot" used to cut down infantry charges becomes a famous campaign slogan, helping carry Taylor to the White House and making a hero out of Bragg.

Commanding a regiment of Mississippi volunteers is Colonel Jefferson Davis, the former son-in-law of Gen. Davis will be offered a commission as a brigadier general in the U.

Army following the war, which he turns down. He does go on to a career in government, serving as a U. Davis had been serving as the provisional president. Franklin Roosevelt orders Gen. Douglas MacArthur, America's only general with experience fighting the Japanese, to leave the Philippines.

MacArthur had previously informed his superiors that he would "share the fate of the garrison" at Corregidor. He delays the trip as long as possible, departing by PT boat on March The operation will continue through May. Barbara Ann Allen Rainey pins on her wings, becoming the first female Naval aviator.

Rainey is assigned to a transport squadron, flying C-1 "Trader" planes. In , she will be killed in a crash while training a student pilot. Army force under the command of Gen. Though surprised and outnumbered, the Americans beat back the Mexicans who are forced to withdraw with heavy losses.

Coast and attacks the Ellwood Oil Field. The sub's 5. Marines capture the summit of Mt. Suribachi on Iwo Jima. Just after a. But an officer orders a larger flag be hoisted so that it might be seen from the far end of the island. The surviving tanks flee, but are targeted by artillery and air support. The Pentagon announces that by this date 1, Iraqi tanks, armored vehicles, and 1, artillery pieces have been destroyed.

In defiance of their mandate to withdraw from Kuwait within 24 hours, Iraq announces "We will never surrender. A lot of Americans will die. And in just hours, it will be over.

William Peake, is killed. Bush will order a ceasefire on the 28th. Air Force B "Superfortress" bomber flown by Capt. James Gallagher and his man crew, takes off from Fort Carswell Tex. The flightcovers 23, miles in 94 hours and 1 minute, requiring mid-air refuelings over the Azores, Saudi Arabia, the Philippines, and Hawaii.

Smith tests an F "Super Sabre" prior to the fighter's delivery to the Air Force, his controls freeze up, sending the fighter into a dive. Smith ejects at miles per hour and becomes the first airman to punch out of a aircraft traveling at supersonic speeds Mach 1.

He is subjected to over 40 G's during violent deceleration, which destroys much of his parachute. The unconscious pilot lands in the Pacific Ocean, remarkably less than yards from a former Naval rescue worker on his fishing boat.

Smith will spend the next seven months in the hospital recovering. Far from being the "Mother of All Battles" that the Iraqi dictator predicted, 21 of his divisions are either destroyed or are no longer combat effective. Meanwhile, a Marine reconnaissance unit enters Kuwait City, the first American outfit to reach the Kuwaiti capital.

That evening, a large column of Iraqi Army vehicles heading north along Highway 80 are targeted by Marine A-6 "Intruder" aircraft. The attack planes hit the first and last vehicles, boxing in the column. Over the next ten hours, coalition aircraft hammer the hundreds of trapped vehicles, creating a swath of destruction known as the "Highway of Death.

The Pentagon announces that after the massive tank Battles of 73 Easting and Norfolk - which resulted in the loss of thousands of Iraqi tanks, armored vehicles, and artillery pieces - that Iraq's military is no longer a valid regional threat. Although outnumbered two-to-one by a dug-in enemy, which was at the time the world's fourth-largest military, the U.

At pm Eastern, President George H. Bush declares that "Kuwait is liberated. Iraq's army is defeated. Robert F. Stockton fires the massive 12" gun, nicknamed "Peacemaker," which explodes. Shrapnel flies through the crowd killing seven onlookers, including Secretary of State Abel P. Upshur, Secretary of the Navy Thomas W. Robert E. Lee's flank and heads south towards Richmond Va.

His mission is to free Union prisoners of war, but despite supporting raids to distract Lee's troops, including one by a detachment of cavalry led by Brig. George A. Custer, Kilpatrick finds the area too heavily defended and a detachment of his men are ambushed. Confederates doctor a captured set of orders taken from a dead Union officer to read that the Union men intended to burn Richmond and kill President Jefferson Davis and his Cabinet.

Rather than hang the captured Union troopers, Gen. Lee urges calm and contacts his counterpart Gen. Robert Meade under a flag of truce, who confirms the orders were merely to rescue POWs. Indiana was designed to be used in close proximity to the coasts, and quickly became obsolete after the Spanish-American War.

Robert G. Scott O'Grady - who is shot down and rescued the following year shoots down three enemy aircraft, and Capt.

Stephen L. Bronstein hits the sub several times with her guns, and together with her fellow destroyer escorts, sink the sub with depth charges. Bronstein 's crew then spots another U-boat with their sonar and quickly sends U to the bottom with more depth charges. In just one second, the blast creates a 4. The 15 megaton explosion is 1, times more powerful than the bombs dropped on Japan nine years before. The next day, the first of nearly 3, U. Ed Dyess, who would be one of the war's first flying aces had his records not been lost, leads a daring raid against Japanese supply depot at Subic Bay.

With his P fighter set up to fly as a dive bomber, Dyess destroys multiple buildings and destroys or damages numerous ships in three sorties.

Prior to the raid, Dyess led 20 of his fellow 21st Pursuit Squadron pilots on America's first amphibious landing of the war. Dyess will be captured in April, surviving the Bataan Death March to lead the only successful large-scale escape from Japanese captivity a year later. After his repatriation, he returns to flying, but dies during a training flight when he opts to stay in his flaming and crippled P "Lightning" fighter to avoid civilian casualties on the ground.

Several enemy ships, scores of enemy aircraft, and thousands of enemy soldiers will be sent to the bottom. Six aircraft are shot down, five pilots are rescued and one is captured. Over the next three-and-a-half years, , tons of bombs fall on the Communist nation - more tonnage dropped than either the Korean War or the Pacific Theater of World War II. Nearly 1, U.

Unfortunately, tight political management by the Lyndon Johnson administration means the military isn't allowed to hit targets of strategic value.

Samuel Nicholas land at New Providence Island in the Bahamas, quickly capturing Fort Montague from the British in the first amphibious operation in American military history. Congress authorizes American Naval action against the pirate state of Algiers.

Army Air Forces participate in the first daylight bombing raid over Berlin. A massive B raid over the German capitol will follow in two days. Five colonists are killed. The soldiers, charged with murder, will contend the protestors were threatening them with rocks and clubs. The killings will spark public outrage, demands for the death penalty for the soldiers responsible, and draw America even closer toward revolution. Louis, Mo. Behind it lie capitals now under the control or influence of the Kremlin.

But with border fences and checkpoints going up from the Baltic to the Adriatic, the West comes to the realization that they are in a cold war with Moscow. Even without counting the million Soviet military and civilian fatalities during World War II, more people died as a result of Stalin's rule than perhaps any ruler in human history. Tens of millions are said to have perished from his manufactured famines, political and military purges, massacres, assassinations, and the brutal Gulags.

Nine had been listed as "Missing In Action" before their release. William Barret Travis � falls to Mexican forces after the Texas garrison puts up one of the most heroic defenses in American military history. The garrison of nearly volunteers is wiped out to a man. Army Air School at Tuskegee, Ala. Among the six new military pilots is Capt. Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Rear Adm. Aaron S. Merrill's Task Force 68 use the Navy's new radar fire control system to target the enemy warships.

Over Europe, nearly B and B bombers conduct The Small Sailing Boats For 2020 Us a daylight raid against Berlin - the first major American mission against the Nazi regime's capital. Ed Yeilding his reconnaissance systems officer, Lt. Vida streak from Oxnard, Calif. This record-setting flight is the last run for the Blackbird, which is headed to the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum. Army armored forces race to seize the strategically vital Ludendorff Bridge also known as the Remagen bridge before the Germans blow the structure.

The Americans are successful, thus enabling the allies to establish a bridgehead on the enemy side of the Rhine River. Robert M. White's North American Aviation X rocketplane breaks away from a B "Stratofortress," streaking through the desert sky to a record of 2, miles per hour. The 86 air raids flown against the Communists in just the first two months of equal the total number in George W.

Bush delivers an ultimatum: "Saddam Hussein and his sons must leave Iraq within 48 hours. Yankee general manager Ed Barrow predicts that "no one will ever be paid more than Ruth.

He joins the st Field Artillery Battalion and is quickly discharged when the military cuts loose draftees over the age of 28 on Dec. Two days later, the Japanese attack Pearl Harbor and Mulcahy - and thousands of other ballplayers - will trade their cleats for combat boots.

The sub's crew are too busy sunbathing to notice Lt. Dryden's plane bearing down on them, and his depth charges sink U Within hours, 1st Battalion, 3rd Marines will arrive aboard transport aircraft at the nearby airbase.

Army Maj. In what will prove to be "a model" for future amphibious operations, the landings are unprecedented: The largest American amphibious operation to date, conducted in less than five hours without a single loss of life. Though the landings are bloodless, grim fighting will continue in the Mexican-American War. The battle ends in a draw with the new armored vessels inflicting marginal damage on one another before breaking off the fight.

VII C. Commander Edward O. McDonnell, who earned the Medal of Honor during the Veracruz campaign in , launches a Sopwith Camel from a special platform constructed atop the Number 2 turret. Soon, U. Nearly , are killed and a million are left homeless in the devastating blaze, making this the deadliest day in human history. George B. McClellan from his post as general-in-chief due to McClellan's unwillingness to attack the Confederate army. Paul Baer singlehandedly attacks seven German aircraft over Cerney-les-Reims, France, shooting down one.

Baer's victory is the first for American pilots not serving in foreign air forces, and he is awarded the Air Corps' first Distinguished Service Cross. Baer would ultimately become an ace, with nine confirmed enemy aircraft shot down seven unconfirmed during World War I before being shot down himself and spending the rest of the war in a German prisoner of war camp. Roosevelt signs the Lend-Lease Act. Within a week, Osaka, Kobe, and Nagoya go up in flames.

Navy conducts the first patrols of Operation "Market Time. Ernest J. King, currently serving as Commander-in-Chief of the U. King fills the role left behind by Adm. Husband E. Kimmel, who was relieved from the position following the Pearl Harbor attack. The Navy's top admiral previously served as a commander in surface, sub, and flattop fleets - and earned his aviator wings.

Not long after becoming CNO, King writes Roosevelt to notify the president that he has reached the mandatory retirement age of Roosevelt responds, "So what, old top? That same day, as a PT boat carries Gen. Three "Flying Fortresses" turn back due to mechanical problems - one crashed during the return trip - and the plane that lands is determined to be unsuitable for flying. Primitive by today's standards, the Sparrow had a very low kill probability and will not be fired against an enemy aircraft until the Vietnam War.

Although Gen. Lee requested that slaves who fought should be granted freedom, the bill did not allow such a provision. A few thousand slaves would go on to fight for the Confederacy; over , blacks fought for the Union. Army establishes the "K-9 Corps" - training dogs to serve in sentry, scout, messenger, and mine detection duties during World War II.

The Quartermaster Corps puts the dogs through an week basic training at camps across the United States, weeding out the animals who can't handle the sound of gunfire or handle the military lifestyle. Some even serve on the front lines. The Japanese are said to have never attacked a patrol accompanied by a war dog.

A German Shepherd named "Chips" serving with a military police company on Sicily attacked a German pillbox, forcing the occupants to surrender.

Royal N. He would fly every type of combat aircraft in theater during his missions. After being released, the 22,lb. The Grand Slam is so big that it remained the most powerful conventional non-nuclear air-dropped bomb until the U. Air Force dropped the 21,lb. That same day on Iwo Jima, Pvt. Franklin E Sigler leads his squad on an assault against a Japanese machine gun nest that had been holding up his company for several days.

Sigler reaches the position first and neutralizes it with grenades. As additional enemy troops begin firing from tunnels and caves near his location, he keeps pressing the attack. Despite his own painful wounds and heavy incoming fire, Sigler carries three of his wounded Marines to safety before returning to the fight. Sigler will be awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions, as will fellow Marine, Pvt. George Philips, who leapt on an enemy grenade to shield his comrades from the deadly blast - sacrificing his life.

Army Gen. Matthew B. Thagard, a Marine fighter pilot that flew combat missions during the Vietnam War before becoming an astronaut, blasts off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan becoming the first American cosmonaut. Charles Cornwallis march toward a pyrrhic victory over Continental Army and militia forces commanded by Maj. Once engaged, the two armies fight for less than two hours. But British losses are heavy. Cornwallis will purportedly say, "I never saw such fighting since God made me.

The Americans fought like demons. Army expeditionary force under the command of Gen. John J. Though Villa will not be captured he will be assassinated in , the expedition will serve as both a proving ground for new American weapons systems and a combat-campaign prep school for many of the officers and men destined for European fighting in Benjamin D.

Foulois commanding. The aviators, crew, and their Curtiss aircraft arrive by train in Columbus, N. Formed in , the 1st Aero Squadron is the U. Lee, Jr. Harold K. Johnson recommends that a division of U. Pershing's Punitive Expedition, Capt.

Townsend F. Dodd and his observer, 1st Aero Squadron Commander Capt. Foulois, fly across the Mexican border on the United States military's first reconnaissance flight over enemy territory. Japanese resistance will continue for several more days, but of the original 21, defenders, only about are captured alive. After the battle for Iwo Jima, Adm. Chester Nimitz states, "By their victory, the 3rd, 4th and 5th Marine Divisions and other units of the Fifth Amphibious Corps have made an accounting to their country which only history will be able to value fully.

Among the Americans serving on Iwo island, uncommon valor was a common virtue. Armstrong USN, ret. Since re-entry took place three days earlier than planned, Air Force Pararescuemen were flown to the landing site to attach the flotation collar to the capsule.

Buckley on his way to work. The former Special Forces Lt. His remains are repatriated in and is given a funeral with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery. Once American troops begin landing, the Sandanistas withdraw. Sir William Howe decides to evacuate the nearly 10, British troops garrisoned in Boston. The fleet of ships carries the British and around 1, Loyalists to Nova Scotia.

Marc A. The enemy will mount a counterattack, but with only moderate effect. Japanese losses of shore facilities, aircraft, and men will be heavy. A lone Japanese bomber slips through the flattop's defenses and hits Franklin with two armor-piercing bombs. The bombs detonate below the flight deck, igniting fires and devastating the ship. Around sailors are killed and another wounded - the highest casualties for a surviving ship during the war. Donald A. Gary, who earned the Medal of Honor when he located a blacked-out mess compartment holding trapped sailors.

Gary made repeated trips through the ship, guiding the men to relative safety. The U. Unfortunately, the dictator was not there. Meanwhile, U. John Hunt Morgan, strikes a sizeable Union reconnaissance force under Col. Albert S. But she will be so badly damaged in an action off Java in , her escorts will be forced to scuttle her. In three months, the largest invasion force in history nearly 4 million Germans crosses into the Soviet Union, catching Joseph Stalin completely by surprise.

Roosevelt to leave his besieged soldiers in the Philippines where their capture is inevitable and make his way to Australia � delivers his famous "I shall return" speech at an Australian train station. MacArthur will return to the Philippines in Oct.

Decatur, the highly acclaimed veteran of two Barbary campaigns, the Quasi War with France, and the War of , sat on the court of Barron's court-martial. Barron would be reinstated after five years, to the objections of his former subordinate Decatur. Both men are wounded in the duel; Decatur would die hours later and in 19 years, Barron would become the Navy's top officer. Truman announces that his administration will conduct a loyalty evaluation to ensure that federal employees are not communist.

The prop breaks away, causing serious damage to the mothership, and the rocketplane has to abort its mission and glide to its landing site. William Westmoreland is promoted to Army Chief of Staff.

The Army's most senior officer is replaced by his deputy, Gen. Creighton Abrams. Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death! The fighting is quick and hot: Both captains are wounded; Dickenson mortally. HMS Penguin surrenders in less than one half hour. Army forces led by Lt.

George Patton near the oasis of El Guettar in Tunisia. The fighting marks the first time U. However, the Fuhrer is advised that there are no longer any reserve troops available. The four-hour spaceflight is the first time a spacecraft makes an orbital maneuver and is the first time NASA sends two men into space.

The fighter pilots eject, and their crippled F slams into an area where 82d Airborne paratroopers were preparing for a jump. A C "Starlifter" is destroyed, 24 paratroopers are killed, and over soldiers are wounded in the "All American" division's worst loss of life since World War II. Richard F. Natonski attack � and will ultimately defeat � Iraqi forces in heavy fighting at An Nasiriyah.

The airborne assault is the last major parachute and gliderborne operation of World War II. He ultimately reached the rank of sergeant before completing his two years of active duty service.

Elvis was a jeep driver and reconnaissance scout, although he could also drive, load, and fire the M Patton tank. Navy begins freedom of navigation operations. When the U. Sixth Fleet, consisting of three aircraft carriers and their air wings, as well as nearly two dozen cruisers, frigates, and destroyers ships cross Gaddhafi's so-called "Line of Death," Libyan warplanes and vessels begin challenging the Americans.

Things go poorly for the Libyans: after day's end, several patrol boats and corvettes are sunk or heavily damaged. Air Force F pilots Col. Cesar Rodriguez and Capt. Mike Shower each shoot down an enemy MiG on the first night of combat operations. Stephen G. Hicks in the Battle of Paducah, Kentucky.

Crilley volunteers to rescue his comrade. Crilley's dive of feet sets a world-record and he is awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions. Jeffrey C. Wilcox, Jr. The following day, Adm. Wilcox is swept overboard by high seas and drowns. The Americans were wearing Army uniforms and should have been treated as prisoners of war. The German officer that ordered the execution, Gen. Anton Dostler, is himself captured by the Americans and is executed by firing squad after a tribunal.

George Patton dispatches a man force on a secret mission to liberate a prisoner-of-war camp near Hammelburg, Germany. The mission behind enemy lines is a failure - dozens of tanks and vehicles are lost and only 35 men return, with the remaining would-be rescuers themselves becoming prisoners. The operation was surrounded in controversy as some believed Patton ordered the risky mission because his son-in-law John K.

Waters, captured by the Germans in Tunisia, was interred at the camp. Waters will ultimately become a four-star general, commanding all Army forces in the Pacific 20 years after World War II. At 11 megatons instead of an estimated , the "Castle Bravo" test is the third-largest ever conducted by the United States. The prototype used on this date becomes the Mark 17 bomb, carried by the massive B "Peacemaker" bomber, and is the first mass produced and air-deployed thermonuclear weapon in the U.

During its mission, Explorer 3 discovers the Van Allen radiation belts. In addition to carrying research payloads, the Jupiter rocket also serves as America's first nuclear-tipped medium range ballistic missile. It was developed by a team of former German scientists, led by Wernher von Braun. Two years later - to the day - the Italy agrees to the deployment of two Jupiter ballistic missile squadrons.

Italy will operate the missiles with U. Jackson's brutal victory in the Battle of Horseshoe Band brings an end the Creek War, handing over millions of acres of land to the United States. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna orders that the prisoners of war be executed by firing squad.

Soldiers that survived the gunfire are finished off with knives and clubs, their bodies piled up and burned. Of the three Marine divisions that fought on Iwo Jima, the "Spearhead" Division suffered the most casualties, but fortunately for these leathernecks, their fighting days are over.

Hammond exposes himself to enemy fire to treat his wounded Marines for four exhausting hours, becoming critically wounded himself. When his unit was ordered to withdraw, Hammond remains behind to assist the incoming medics treat and evacuate the casualties, but is killed by an enemy mortar. For his actions, Hammond is posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. The magnitude 9. Soldiers work quickly to restore communications with the lower 48 states while ships, planes, and vehicles rush in food and supplies.

On this date, the U. Navy begins a four-day evacuation that saves some 30, South Vietnamese from the communist invasion. The refugees are so desperate - including many panicked South Vietnamese soldiers - that they cling to the landing gear and air stairs as the planes take off. Dale Zelko's FA "Nighthawk" stealth fighter is hit by a Yugoslavian Army surface-to-air missile after completing a bombing run over Belgrade.

Zelko ejects from the seemingly invincible aircraft - the only time an F is ever shot down - and is rescued eight hours later by a a combat search and rescue team. Ingraham's platoon was hammered by automatic weapons fire from around North Vietnamese soldiers. Over the next several hours, Ingraham disregarded heavy incoming fire and treated his fellow Marines, patching up wounds, distributing ammunition, all the while ignoring four bullet wounds he received during the battle - one of which was life-threatening.

For his selfless actions, Ingraham is awarded the Medal of Honor. Today he is one of only 71 surviving recipients of the nation's highest award for combat valor. With the Paris Peace Accords putting an end to direct U. Army selects Colt's Model of Designed by John Browning, the M is destined to become the longest-serving pistol in military history, still carried on battlefields by. Meanwhile, the Royal Air Force's Bomber Command conducts what becomes its deadliest mission of the war during a strike on Nuremburg, Germany.

Some airmen are missing and of them end up in German prisoner of war camps. During the Nuremburg raid, a Halifax bomber flown by captain Cyril J. Barton fell under attack by German fighters while enroute to the target. Barton manages to throw off the enemy fighters but not before they inflict heavy damage to his Halifax, causing three of his seven-man crew bail out. Despite not having a navigator, radio operator, or bombardier, Barton presses on to the objective and releases the bombs himself, then makes the return trip to England.

The badly shot up plane runs out of fuel once they hit the coast, and Barton crash-lands - saving the crew, but at the cost of his life. Hilton Hotel. While the president lost half his blood and was in shock from the gunshot, the year-old former cavalry officer makes a full recovery - thanks to his fitness and the quick actions of his Secret Service agents. Jerry Parr, the agent who pushed Reagan into the presidential limousine and made the life-saving decision to reroute the motorcade to George Washington Hospital instead of the medical team waiting at the White House, was inspired to become a Secret Service agent by watching a film starring Ronald Reagan called Code of the Secret Service Although the Tenth Army quickly sweeps across southern portion of the island - capturing the Japanese airfields at Kadena and Yomitan within hours after landing.

However, the day campaign to secure Okinawa is so brutal 20, U. Truman decides to end World War II with atomic weapons six weeks later.

Alliance' s skipper, Commodore John Barry, holds the distinction of being the first commissioned officer and the first flag officer of the U. Following the Union victory, the road to the capital of Richmond is left open; Gen. Lee's army march west while President Jefferson Davis and his government evacuate to Danville. Months of winter in the trenches have worn down Lee's troops, while Grant's army is gaining in strength.

The Union will capture Richmond and the war is days from ending. Initially conducting operations from bases in China, Burma, and India, the Twentieth will carry out the strategic bombing against Japanese targets. Caught by surprise, the Royal Navy hastily assembles a task force and sails south. In ten weeks, the United Kingdom reclaims their territories, thanks to material support from the United States. The government had evacuated the city by rail the day before. Soldiers and citizens burned buildings set buildings on fire as they departed, and the conflagration will consume some 35 blocks of Richmond.

It takes Union soldiers until the afternoon to contain the blaze. Masaharu Homma, launches a major offensive against American and Filipino forces on the Bataan Peninsula. In six days, the 75, defenders, already weakened by starvation and disease, will have no choice but to surrender to the Japanese.

Homma is convicted of nearly 50 counts of war crimes for his troops' treatment of prisoners in the Bataan Death March, and is shot by firing squad. Although Air Force pilots score numerous direct hits on the bridge, they only manage to halt traffic for a few hours. This mission marks the first of unsuccessful sorties against the stubborn bridge, and also the first dogfight of the Vietnam War. Robinson will earn the Air Force Cross - the service's second-highest valor decoration - during the strike.

The mile-long bridge is the only span across the Red River connecting Hanoi and Haiphong Harbor, also withstanding strike after strike and becomes a symbol of communist resistance to the U. The famous Col. Robin Olds and four other pilots will earn the Air Force Cross on one mission against the heavily defended site in Both bridges remain in operation until F-4 Phantoms knock them out with laser-guided bombs in The Doumer Bridge returns to full service a year later and remains in use today.

Elsewhere in southeast Asia, two B Canberra bombers, supported by a C flare ship, fly the first interdiction mission on the Ho Chi Minh Trail in southeastern Laos. Thomas W. Custer of the 6th Michigan Cavalry earns his first of two Medals of Honor. Serving alongside his older brother, Brig. Thomas capture another enemy flag in three days, becoming the Civil War's only double recipient of the Medal of Honor.

Interestingly, George Custer is the first Union soldier to capture an enemy flag, which he accomplishes while serving as Maj. McClellan's aide-de-camp in George, Thomas, and younger brother Boston will all perish during the Battle of Little Bighorn in During the rescue operation the blimp, J-3 goes down, killing two more sailors. As a result of the deadliest airship disaster in history, life preservers and life rafts are installed on the Navy's remaining airships. Among the lost is airship advocate Rear Adm.

One of the three survivors is executive officer Lt. Herbert V. Wiley, who will go on to command Akron 's sister ship USS Macon , which will crash in , ending the Navy's rigid airship program. Captains Dennis W.

Harp fight to keep the plane airborne with only one aileron and the thrust of the engines. The C-5 crash-lands in a rice paddy short of the runway, killing passengers. Helicopters are unable to land in the soggy rice fields, and the crew has to carry survivors to rescue teams.

Regina C. Aune ignores a broken foot, leg, and back and carries some 80 babies to safety before finally collapsing. For her selfless efforts the Air Force makes Aune the first recipient of the Cheney Award, which is presented "for an act of valor, extreme fortitude or self-sacrifice in a humanitarian interest.

Pilots Traynor and Harp are awarded the Air Force Cross for what the commanding officer of Military Airlift Command calls "one of the greatest displays of airmanship I have ever heard related. Although outnumbered significantly, Maj. Magruder maneuvers his two divisions in such a way that tricks Union Maj. George McClellan into thinking that there are far more Confederates in the area than actually were.

A cautious McClellan orders his troops to dig trenches, beginning a month-long siege. By the time his massive artillery pieces and naval artillery are in place in May, the Confederates manage to slip away. The outfit is commanded by Capt. Paul W. Beck, who is joined by 1st Lt. Benjamin Foulois, 2nd Lt. George E. Kelly, and 2nd Lt. John C. Operation Hannibal was a German naval operation involving the evacuation by sea of German troops and civilians from Courland , East Prussia , and the Polish Corridor from mid-January to May as the Red Army advanced during the East Prussian and East Pomeranian Offensives and subsidiary operations.

The operation was codenamed Hannibal. The flood of military personnel and German civilians eventually turned the operation into one of the largest evacuations by sea in history, even larger than the far more widely known British evacuation of Dunkirk five years earlier. Over a period of 15 weeks, somewhere between and 1, merchant vessels of all types, including fishing boats and other craft, [2] and utilizing Germany's largest remaining naval units, carried between , and , German civilians and , soldiers [3] across the Baltic Sea to Germany and German-occupied Denmark.

Operation Hannibal commenced on January 23, Hansa was forced to return to port with mechanical trouble, but the Gustloff , with more than 10, civilians and military personnel aboard, continued.

She was torpedoed and sunk by the Soviet submarine S off the Pomeranian coast, with possibly as many as 9, fatalities.

She was also sunk by the S , just after midnight, with survivors. In early March, a task force composed of the German cruiser Admiral Scheer accompanied by three German destroyers and the Elbing-class torpedo boat T36 were giving cover to a German bridgehead near Wollin.

During that operation, naval small craft evacuated over 75, soldiers and civilians who had been isolated in that area. They were taken to larger warships and other transports lying offshore. While a number of these transports were sunk, large liners such as SS Deutschland got through and carried up to 11, soldiers and civilians each.

On April 15, another large convoy consisting of four liners and other transports left Hela with over 20, soldiers and civilians. On April 16, the Goya was torpedoed and sunk by L-3 , with the loss of over 6, lives; survived.

It was not until the afternoon of May 6, with British troops practically on his doorstep, that he gave up on that plan.

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